The following studies demonstrate how biological effects can be caused by modulated or pulsed RF radiation. Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8 GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. Effects of continuous and pulsed 2450-MHz radiation on spontaneous lymphoblastoid transformation of human lymphocytes in vitro. Responses of neurons to an amplitude modulated microwave stimulus. Bursting responses of Lymnea neurons to microwave radiation. Radiofrequency radiation-induced calcium ion efflux enhancement from human and other neuroblastoma cells in culture. In vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to 900 MHz CW and GSM modulated radiofrequency: studies of proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. Features of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Modulated Extremely High-Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation High frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM signals) affect gene expression levels in tumor suppressor p53-deficient embryonic stem cells Effect of amplitude modulated RF radiation on calcium ion efflux and ODC activity in chronically exposed rat brain. Effect on the immune system of mice exposed chronically to 50Hz amplitude-modulated 2.45 GHz microwaves. Cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes following GMSK phase modulated microwave exposure. Exposure of frog hearts to CW or amplitude-modulated VHF fields: selective efflux of calcium ions at 16 Hz.